Waylink English

List of the top English common nouns

These lists show you which words are used most often. They give you examples of their correct use in phrases or sentences. Note that some words may be used as noun, verb, adjective etc. For definitions and more uses and different meanings of these words you should refer to a good online dictionary or printed book dictionary of English.

abbey

 

ability

She has the ability to pass the exam.

abolition

The abolition of restrictions encourages business expansion.

He wanted the abolition of smoking.

abortion

She had an abortion at the hospital.

absence

 

abuse

Some politicians abuse their official positions.

ac

The houses have 230V AC electricity. (AC = alternating current.)

academy

 

accent

 

acceptance

The applicant received his letter of acceptance from the university.

access

He failed to access the locked room.

She uses Access database to store information.

accident

It was no accident that they left the party at the same time.

The accident victim was treated by a hospital doctor and nurses.

accommodation

They stayed in bed and breakfast accommodation because it was comfortable and cheap.

account

 

accountability

 

accountant

The accountant produced the company accounts for the tax inspector.

accounting

The company has advertised a new post - Chief Accounting Officer.

accuracy

They challenged the accuracy of the witness's evidence.

The measurement has an accuracy of 0.1%.

accusation

 

ace

 

achievement

Man's greatest achievement is language.

acid

The science teacher explained the danger of acid being spilled in the laboratory.

acquisition

 

acre

 

act

That film star can act brilliantly.

He was coughing so badly he had to leave the theatre during act three.

The United Nations Security Council condemned the act of war and called for a ceasefire.

action

The police took action to reduce crime.

activist

 

activity

After the terrorist attack, there was a lot of police activity at the airport.

This learning activity should help you to understand how to calculate the area of a circle.

I cannot see any benefit in allowing this dangerous activity to take place.

actor

He is the leading actor in the TV play.

actress

 

ad

 

adaptation

 

addition

 

address

President Obama will address the United Nations Security Council.

The visiting professor gave an address to the conference.

I wrote his name and address in my notebook.

adjective

The word 'book' can be used as a noun, as an adjective and as a verb.

adjustment

 

administration

She works in administration and has to do a lot of paperwork.

The company went into administration and eventually closed down.

administrator

 

admission

 

adoption

 

adult

Almost ten per cent of the adult population are HIV-Aids infected.

advance

 

advantage

He tried to gain an unfair advantage by bribing the government official.

adventure

 

advertisement

 

advertising

 

advice

She is manager of the advice centre.

What advice can you give me to solve this problem?

Students need careful advice about making wise career choices.

adviser

 

affair

They kept their love affair secret so that the newspapers would not publish embarassing stories.

affection

 

afternoon

In the morning I go to school, in the afternoon I play sport and in the evening I read books.

age

What age are you? Only people aged 18 and over are allowed in this club.

agency

They went to the ticket agency to buy theatre tickets.

The inter-governmental agency is responsible for organizing AIDS awareness campaigns in the region.

agenda

I hope the report is on the agenda of the committee meeting.

agent

He works as an agent and earns commission on every sale.

aggression

War is sometimes due to foreign aggression and sometimes aimed at liberating a nation from oppression.

agony

After the bomb blast, he was in agony waiting for the ambulance to take him to hospital.

agreement

The committee members were in agreement about the new policy proposals.

The football club signed an agreement with the city council.

Your agreement is vital. Without it, the plans will not be approved.

agriculture

 

aid

Jack learned first aid so that he could help injured people.

Foreign governments give development aid to poorer countries.

aids

The inter-governmental agency is responsible for organizing AIDS awareness campaigns in the region.

aim

My aim in life is to work hard and to play hard.

The soldier took careful aim and then fired her rifle.

air

All animals and plants depend on oxygen usually from the air around them.

Air is about 79% nitrogen and 20% oxygen; the rest is other gases including air pollution.

aircraft

The model aircraft is operated by radio control.

The aircraft experienced turbulence during the flight.

airline

When you fly there is a chance that the airline will lose your bags at the airport.

airport

Both arrival and departures are at the same airport terminal.

If you approach the airport from the south, you will see a large car park.

alarm

 

album

 

alcohol

 

allegation

 

alliance

 

allocation

 

allowance

 

ally

Germany is an important ally of France; they have been allies for many years.

alpha

 

alteration

 

alternative

He calls it an alternative lifestyle; I call it lazy!

aluminium

 

ambassador

 

ambiguity

 

ambition

 

ambulance

After the bomb blast, he was in agony waiting for the ambulance to take him to hospital.

amendment

 

american

Texas is a large American state.

In American English,

amnesty

 

amount

No amount of pressure will cause me to agree to your proposal.

amusement

 

analogy

 

analysis

The laboratory analysis showed that the water was dangerously polluted.

analyst

 

ancestor

 

angel

 

anger

 

angle

 

animal

The elephant is a large and strong animal but usually peaceful unless threatened.

ankle

 

anniversary

 

announcement

 

answer

 

ant

 

antibody

 

anxiety

 

apartment

 

apology

 

apparatus

 

appeal

He lodged an appeal against convictiion claiming that he was totally innocent of the crime.

OXFAM and other charities launched an appeal to raise money for poor people.

appearance

His appearance was very poor; his clothes were scruffy and his hands were dirty.

appendix

 

appetite

 

apple

 

applicant

The applicant received his letter of acceptance from the university.

application

The pharmacist said that daily application of the skin cream was necessary.

appointment

She has an appointment with the doctor this morning.

Her appointment was surprising - everyone thought she would not get the job.

appraisal

 

appreciation

 

approach

His approach to the task is to be patient and persuasive; trying to bully people is not the best approach.

If you approach the airport from the south, you will see a large car park.

The scientific approach is dispassionate and rational.

approval

They applied to the local council for planning approval to build a new office block.

arch

 

archbishop

 

architect

We asked the architect to draw a plan of the proposed new house.

architecture

 

archive

 

area

The area of a circle is the radius squared multiplied by pi.

This learning activity should help you to understand how to calculate the area of a circle.

argument

They had a serious argument which led to a quarrel and then a fight.

The lawyer submitted a detailed argument to the court claiming that the defendant had an alibi.

His argument was very logical but based on false assumptions.

arm

 

army

The army has several tank and infantry regiments and an airborne division.

The foreign army launched an assault on the enemy headquarters.

arrangement

 

array

 

arrest

 

arrival

Both arrival and departures are at the same airport terminal.

With the arrival of foreign soldiers, the people were anxious.

arrow

The archer picked up his bow and fired an arrow at the enemy.

art

She loves the world of art and literature.

The art gallery has a fine collection of paintings and statues from all over the world.

article

She wrote an interesting article for the school magazine.

artist

She is a brilliant artist - imaginative, expressive and a brilliant painter.

ash

The forest is mainly oak trees but there are some birch, ash and sycamore too.

Although the fire had finished burning, the ash was still very hot.

aspect

One aspect of his proposal worried me; the new factory was too close to the residential area.

aspiration

 

assault

The foreign army launched an assault on the enemy headquarters.

assembly

The National Assembly is the parliament and meets in the capital.

This assembly is an electronic device that regulates energy consumption.

The car factory has installed a new assembly line.

assertion

 

assessment

 

asset

 

assignment

 

assistance

 

assistant

 

associate

 

association

The Youth Hostel Association is an organization that provides cheap overnight accommodation.

The police became suspicious of his association with known terrorists and they brought him in for questioning.

The association of ideas led to a discussion covering many seemingly unrelated topics.

The Moseley Chapter of the association meets every Friday evening.

assumption

 

assurance

 

asylum

 

atmosphere

 

atom

 

attack

 

attempt

His attempt to climb Mount Everest failed because he ran out of oxygen,

attendance

 

attention

The teacher told the students to pay attention to the explanations.

The soldiers stood to attention and saluted when the president drove past.

attitude

 

attraction

 

attribute

 

auction

 

audience

 

audit

 

auditor

 

aunt

 

author

 

authority

The Health Authority gives money to the hospitals.

autonomy

 

autumn

 

availability

 

avenue

 

average

 

award

The soldier won a military award for bravery.

He asked the court to award the plaintiff $50000 for the serious injuries he has suffered.

This is the highest academic award that the university can offer.

awareness

The inter-governmental agency is responsible for organizing AIDS awareness campaigns in the region.

axis

 

baby

The baby was born at 03:30 in the city hospital.

This baby submarine can carry two people to depths of 500 metres.

back

He injured his back in a sports accident.

The two students sat at the back of the class hoping that the teacher would ignore them.

background

 

backing

 

bacterium

 

bag

 

balance

 

balcony

 

ball

 

ballet

 

balloon

 

ballot

 

ban

 

band

 

bank

She went to the bank to deposit some cheques and withdraw some cash.

banker

 

banking

 

bankruptcy

 

bar

He said that Vancouver is the best city bar none. (

bargain

 

bargaining

 

barn

 

baron

 

barrel

 

barrier

 

base

 

basin

 

basis

On the basis of 5 litres per person, he calculated the group would need 50 litres of water per day.

basket

 

bass

 

bastard

 

bat

 

bath

 

bathroom

 

battery

The 12 volt battery consisted of six cells each producing two volts.

battle

 

bay

 

beach

 

beam

 

bean

 

bear

The right to bear arms is enshrined in the US constitution. Firearms are dangerous.

bearing

 

beast

 

beat

 

beauty

 

bed

They stayed in bed and breakfast accommodation because it was comfortable and cheap.

The hotel offered us a room with a double bed or two single beds.

bedroom

 

bee

 

beef

 

beer

 

beginning

 

behalf

 

behaviour

The hooligans behaviour was totally unacceptable.

Psychologists study human behaviour and make associations between stimuli and responses.

being

The science teacher explained the danger of acid being spilled in the laboratory.

belief

 

bell

 

belt

 

bench

 

benefit

I cannot see any benefit in allowing this dangerous activity to take place.

bias

 

bible

 

bicycle

 

bid

 

bike

 

bile

 

bill

He stayed so long in the hotel that his bill amounted to over 500 dollars.

billion

 

bin

 

biography

 

biology

 

bird

The bird swooped from high in the sky and plucked a fish from the lake.

birth

 

birthday

We had a birthday party on Friday.

biscuit

 

bishop

 

bit

That ancient college has a royal charter and coat of arms - a bit like a logo, really!

black

 

bladder

 

blade

 

blanket

 

blast

 

block

 

bloke

 

blood

The blood sample was taken to the laboratory for analysis.

They gave their blood fighting fot the independence of their country.

blow

 

blue

 

board

The board of directors ordered all employees to be more efficient and give better service to customers.

boat

 

body

Her body is healthy but her brain is damaged.

Human communication is affected by body language and tone of voice as well as the actual words spoken.

bolt

 

bomb

The government increase security controls due to the bomb scare.

After the bomb blast, he was in agony waiting for the ambulance to take him to hospital.

bomber

 

bombing

 

bond

 

bone

 

bonus

 

book

I read the book from cover to cover.

The film is not a patch on the book (colloquial; not as good as).

booking

 

booklet

 

boom

 

boost

 

boot

 

border

 

borough

 

borrowing

 

boss

Now that the boss is back, we had better work faster.

bottle

 

bottom

 

boundary

 

bow

The archer picked up his bow and fired an arrow at the enemy.

bowel

 

bowl

 

bowler

 

box

I asked at the theatre box office but they said that no seats were available.

He put the present into a large box and wrapped it carefully before posting.

boxing

 

boy

The boy and his sister played together in the garden.

The boy stood on the burning deck, complaining of the heat. So he stood on his hands and tried to cool his feet.

They have two children - a boy and a girl.

boyfriend

 

bracket

 

brain

Her body is healthy but her brain is damaged.

brake

 

branch

 

brand

 

brass

 

breach

 

bread

The price of bread has increased greatly.

break

You will need a lot of force to break down that security door.

breakdown

 

breakfast

They stayed in bed and breakfast accommodation because it was comfortable and cheap.

breast

 

breath

 

breed

 

breeding

 

breeze

 

brewery

 

brick

 

bride

 

bridge

 

brigade

 

broadcast

 

broadcasting

 

brochure

 

broker

 

bronze

 

brother

He gave his brother and two sisters presents when he returned from vacation.

brow

 

brush

 

bucket

 

budget

Our budget is too small to allow luxury expenditure.

We need to budget for further expansion and increased advetising expenditure.

builder

The builder used a spirit-level to check whether the wall was level and true.

building

 

bulb

 

bulk

 

bull

 

bullet

 

bunch

 

burden

 

bureau

 

bureaucracy

 

burial

 

bus

What time does the bus service start?

Jack caught a bus to the airport.

bush

 

business

The abolition of restrictions encourages business expansion.

What business is it of yours?

There was a conflict of interest between his business investments and his job as minister.

Money laundering is used to transfer money from drugs, smuggling and other crimes into legitimate business accounts.

She has a good reputation as a business leader.

His business affairs are kept separate from his political position.

The business students argued about the difference in meaning between

Her university degree is in Business Administration.

businessman

 

butter

 

butterfly

 

button

 

buyer

 

cab

 

cabin

 

cabinet

 

cable

 

cage

 

cake

 

calcium

 

calculation

 

calendar

February is the only calendar month with 28 days.

calf

 

call

He received the phone call after midnight and his sleep was disturbed.

There was a call for the minister

He calls it an alternative lifestyle; I call it lazy!

camera

 

camp

 

campaign

The advertizing campaign was very successful and sales increased by 15%.

can

The word 'book' can be used as a noun, as an adjective and as a verb.

I can see with both eyes.

Logic and reason can solve many problems but not all.

You can use my car to drive to town.

That film star can act brilliantly.

What advice can you give me to solve this problem?

This baby submarine can carry two people to depths of 500 metres.

This is the highest academic award that the university can offer.

Heavy plant and machinery can be very dangerous in the wrong hands.

I bought some land so that I can build a new house.

canal

 

cancer

 

candidate

The Labour Party candidate was successful in the election.

candle

 

canvas

 

cap

 

capability

 

capacity

The maximum capacity of this left is 10 persons.

capital

London is the capital city of England.

The firm needed to raise more capital to finance new investment in export markets.

capitalism

 

captain

 

car

He was injured in a car accident.

My car has broken down so I will have to go by bus.

New car drivers must learn to operate the controls with skill.

The car repair job took 3 days.

The road was wide enough for the car to overtake.

You can use my car to drive to town.

If you approach the airport from the south, you will see a large car park.

The car factory has installed a new assembly line.

I need to insure my car against fire, theft and collision damage risks.

caravan

 

carbon

 

card

He always carried his credit card in case of emergency.

care

The old woman was in need of care due to her illness.

The children played happily without a care in the world.

He needs hospital care to recover from the suregery.

career

He wanted a career in politics but he had no charisma to win votes.

Students need careful advice about making wise career choices.

carer

 

cargo

 

carpet

 

carriage

 

carrier

 

cart

 

case

I'll wait for you in case you are late.

You travel light; you have only one case and I have several bags.

He always carried his credit card in case of emergency.

cash

 

cassette

 

cast

 

castle

 

casualty

 

cat

 

catalogue

 

catch

 

category

 

cathedral

 

catholic

The Catholic Church is a very large organization with hundreds of millions of believers.

cattle

 

cause

No amount of pressure will cause me to agree to your proposal.

The unnecessary movement of vehicles every day is a major cause of pollution.

caution

 

cave

 

cd

 

ceiling

 

celebration

 

cell

The prisoner was kept in his cell for 23 hours a day.

census

 

centre

The sun is the centre of our universe.

century

The nineteenth century was a very turbulent period in British history.

Robertson scored his first century in yesterday

ceremony

 

certainty

 

certificate

 

ch

 

chain

 

chair

A chair usually has four legs but a stool has only three.

chairman

The chairman called the meeting to order so that they could begin formal discussions.

challenge

 

chamber

 

champagne

 

champion

 

championship

 

chance

When you fly there is a chance that the airline will lose your bags at the airport.

Football is a game of skill but there is still an element of chance that produces surprise results.

chancellor

 

change

She wished for a change in the weather.

He brought a change of clothes.

I didn't have any small change so gave him paper money.

My decision is final; you will not persuade me to change my opinion.

channel

 

chaos

 

chap

 

chapel

 

chapter

When he returned from the war, he started a new chapter in his life.

The Moseley Chapter of the association meets every Friday evening.

character

Comic character Baldrick said, 'I have a cunning plan.'

TV comedy character Baldrick said he had a cunning plan.

characteristic

 

charge

The government is in charge of the army, education, health and trade.

charity

 

charm

 

chart

 

charter

That ancient college has a royal charter and coat of arms - a bit like a logo, really!

check

The builder used a spirit-level to check whether the wall was level and true.

cheek

 

cheese

 

chemical

 

chemist

 

chemistry

 

cheque

 

chest

 

chicken

 

chief

The company has advertised a new post - Chief Accounting Officer.

child

He was convicted of child abuse.

My child is sick. Her children are 6 and 8 years old.

childhood

 

chin

 

chip

 

chocolate

 

choice

Her choice of clothes surprised her mother. Her mother wanted her to choose different clothes.

choir

 

chord

 

chorus

 

christian

 

christianity

 

christmas

 

church

The Catholic Church is a very large organization with hundreds of millions of believers.

This church was built 500 years ago but is still used for worship today.

cigarette

 

cinema

 

circle

The area of a circle is the radius squared multiplied by pi.

circuit

 

circulation

 

circumstance

 

citizen

 

city

Mr Khan works in a city office.

Which way (direction) is it to the city centre?

The football club signed an agreement with the city council.

The baby was born at 03:30 in the city hospital.

He said that Vancouver is the best city bar none. (

London is the capital city of England.

Land is very expensive - especially in city centres and crowded countries.

claim

The passenger submitted a claim for compensation for the baggage lost at the airport.

clarity

 

clash

 

class

My school class is learning English. .

High class restaurants are usually expensive.

The two students sat at the back of the class hoping that the teacher would ignore them.

classic

 

classification

 

classroom

 

clause

 

clay

 

cleaner

 

cleaning

 

clergy

 

clerk

 

client

 

cliff

 

climate

 

clinic

 

clock

 

close

Please close the door when you go out.

One aspect of his proposal worried me; the new factory was too close to the residential area.

closure

 

cloth

 

clothes

Her choice of clothes surprised her mother. Her mother wanted her to choose different clothes.

His appearance was very poor; his clothes were scruffy and his hands were dirty.

clothing

He bought three articles of clothing in the shop.

Government issue clothing for soldiers is usually very strong and hardwearing.

cloud

 

club

The student joined a sports club and a musical society.

The football club signed an agreement with the city council.

Manchester United football club has bought a new player - he cost over a million Euro.

clue

 

cluster

 

cm

 

co

 

co-operation

 

coach

 

coal

 

coalition

 

coast

 

coat

That ancient college has a royal charter and coat of arms - a bit like a logo, really!

code

 

coffee

 

coffin

 

coin

 

cold

 

colitis

 

collaboration

 

collapse

 

collar

 

colleague

 

collection

At the end of the meeting, there was a collection to raise money for the project.

The art gallery has a fine collection of paintings and statues from all over the world.

collector

 

college

That ancient college has a royal charter and coat of arms - a bit like a logo, really!

colonel

 

colony

 

colour

What is the main colour on your football team's shirts.

column

 

combination

 

comedy

TV comedy character Baldrick said he had a cunning plan.

comfort

 

command

 

commander

 

comment

 

commentary

 

commentator

 

commerce

 

commission

He earned 10 per cent commission on everything that he sold.

He works as an agent and earns commission on every sale.

commissioner

 

commitment

 

committee

The committee members were in agreement about the new policy proposals.

I hope the report is on the agenda of the committee meeting.

commodity

 

commonwealth

 

communication

Human communication is affected by body language and tone of voice as well as the actual words spoken.

communist

 

community

There is a public party tonight in the community hall.

companion

 

company

The accountant produced the company accounts for the tax inspector.

Don't keep company with bad people.

The company went into administration and eventually closed down.

The labour union leaders and the company management reached a pay deal and averted a strike.

The company has advertised a new post - Chief Accounting Officer.

comparison

 

compensation

The passenger submitted a claim for compensation for the baggage lost at the airport.

competence

 

competition

 

competitor

 

complaint

 

completion

 

complex

The mechanism has a complex action.

The course of history is complex and erratic.

complexity

 

compliance

 

complication

 

component

 

composer

 

composition

 

compound

 

compromise

 

computer

Searching and sorting are very demanding computer applications.

The computer system failed to work properly.

computing

 

concentration

 

concept

 

conception

 

concern

 

concert

 

concession

 

conclusion

 

condition

 

conduct

 

conference

 

confidence

 

configuration

 

confirmation

 

conflict

There was a conflict of interest between his business investments and his job as minister.

confrontation

 

confusion

 

congregation

 

congress

 

connection

 

conscience

 

consciousness

 

consensus

 

consent

 

consequence

 

conservation

 

conservative

 

consideration

Cost is an important consideration for any purchase.

conspiracy

 

constable

 

constituency

 

constituent

 

constitution

Article 3 of the constitution guarantees equal rights for all citizens.

constraint

 

construction

 

consultant

 

consultation

 

consumer

 

consumption

 

contact

 

container

 

contemporary

 

contempt

 

content

 

contest

 

context

 

continent

 

continuity

 

contract

They met to sign the contract of cooperation between the parties.

contractor

 

contradiction

 

contrary

 

contrast

 

contribution

 

control

The government has no control over the weather.

controller

 

controversy

 

convention

 

conversation

 

conversion

 

conviction

 

cooking

Electric power is used for lighting, cooking and heating.

cooperation

They met to sign the contract of cooperation between the parties.

copper

 

copy

 

copyright

 

coral

 

core

 

corn

 

corner

 

corp

 

corporation

 

corps

 

corpse

 

correlation

 

correspondence

 

correspondent

 

corridor

 

corruption

 

cost

The cost of raw materials has increased by 12% since last year.

His drunken driving cost him his life.

Manchester United football club has bought a new player - he cost over a million Euro.

costume

 

cottage

 

cotton

 

council

The local council looks after street cleaning.

She was elected to the Council of Ministers.

The United Nations Security Council condemned the act of war and called for a ceasefire.

They applied to the local council for planning approval to build a new office block.

councillor

 

counselling

 

count

 

counter

 

counterpart

 

country

We visited a country park.

France is a large country in Europe.

It is your duty to be loyal to your country and be a good citizen.

countryside

 

county

 

coup

 

couple

 

courage

 

course

The course of history is complex and erratic.

The race course was very crowded with spectators.

court

The court of King Rascali was corrupt.

The judge sits in court and hears criminal cases.

The court is very busy - the judge has to hear several cases this week.

The lawyer submitted a detailed argument to the court claiming that the defendant had an alibi.

He asked the court to award the plaintiff $50000 for the serious injuries he has suffered.

The decison of the district court was overturned by the higher court of appeal.

courtesy

 

cousin

 

covenant

 

cover

I read the book from cover to cover.

coverage

 

cow

 

crack

 

craft

 

crash

The train crash was caused by faulty railway points.

cream

The pharmacist said that daily application of the skin cream was necessary.

creation

 

creature

 

credit

He always carried his credit card in case of emergency.

creditor

 

crew

 

cricket

 

crime

There is a lot of crime in this area.

criminal

The judge sits in court and hears criminal cases.

The criminal was sentenced to a term of 10 years in jail.

crisis

 

criterion

 

critic

 

criticism

 

crop

 

cross

Don't cross that red line!

The protesters could not cross the police line.

crossing

 

crowd

 

crown

 

cry

 

crystal

 

cult

 

culture

 

cup

 

cupboard

 

cure

 

curiosity

 

currency

 

current

 

curriculum

 

curtain

 

curve

 

custody

 

custom

 

customer

 

cut

His smoking patch has helped him cut down.

cutting

 

cycle

 

cylinder

 

dad

 

daddy

 

dairy

 

damage

I need to insure my car against fire, theft and collision damage risks.

dance

 

dancer

 

dancing

 

danger

The science teacher explained the danger of acid being spilled in the laboratory.

dark

 

darkness

 

darling

 

data

The word data was originally the plural of datum.

Nowadays, the word data is generally used as an uncountable (mass) noun.

The lack of data makes it difficult to decide.

The Data Protection Officer refused to allow disclosure of private information.

database

She uses Access database to store information.

date

What date is it today?

daughter

My mother and father have two children: a daughter and a son.

dawn

 

day

The day after tomorrow is Thursday.

The unnecessary movement of vehicles every day is a major cause of pollution.

daylight

 

deadline

 

deal

The New Deal was a major project aimed at creating jobs and reducing poverty in America.

The labour union leaders and the company management reached a pay deal and averted a strike.

dealer

 

dealing

 

dear

 

death

 

debate

 

debt

 

debtor

 

debut

 

decade

 

decision

My decision is final; you will not persuade me to change my opinion.

decision-making

 

deck

 

declaration

 

decline

 

decoration

 

decree

 

deed

 

default

 

defeat

 

defect

 

defence

Mr Trasker is the Minister of Defence in the Social Democratic government.

The prosecution said that he was a murderer but the defence lawyer said it was mistaken itdentity.

defendant

The judge awarded the defendant

The lawyer submitted a detailed argument to the court claiming that the defendant had an alibi.

defender

 

deficiency

 

deficit

 

definition

 

degree

Her university degree is in Business Administration.

delay

 

delegate

 

delegation

 

delight

 

delivery

 

demand

 

democracy

 

democrat

 

demonstration

 

density

 

department

Which department do you work in?

departure

 

dependence

 

deposit

She went to the bank to deposit some cheques and withdraw some cash.

depression

 

depth

 

deputy

 

descent

 

description

 

desert

The Sahara Desert is vast dry in Africa.

design

His design for a new style of furniture won first prize.

designer

 

desire

 

desk

 

desktop

 

despair

 

destination

 

destruction

 

detail

Attention to detail is vital in forensic science.

detective

 

determination

 

developer

 

development

Educational development is very important for the nation.

Foreign governments give development aid to poorer countries.

The Expressionist movement was an important stage in the development of modern art.

device

This assembly is an electronic device that regulates energy consumption.

devil

 

diagnosis

 

diagram

 

dialogue

 

diameter

 

diamond

 

diary

 

dictionary

 

diesel

 

diet

 

difference

The business students argued about the difference in meaning between

difficulty

His firm had great difficulty in obtaining finance to buy the expensive new machine.

dignity

 

dilemma

 

dimension

 

dining

 

dinner

 

dioxide

 

direction

 

directive

 

director

She is the director responsible for the new department.

directory

 

dirt

 

disability

 

disadvantage

 

disagreement

 

disappointment

 

disaster

 

disc

 

discharge

 

discipline

 

disclosure

The Data Protection Officer refused to allow disclosure of private information.

discount

 

discourse

 

discovery

 

discretion

 

discrimination

 

discussion

The association of ideas led to a discussion covering many seemingly unrelated topics.

disease

Millions of children suffer poverty, disease and starvation due to social inequalities.

dish

 

disk

 

dismissal

 

disorder

 

display

 

disposal

 

dispute

 

distance

 

distinction

 

distress

 

distribution

 

district

The decison of the district court was overturned by the higher court of appeal.

disturbance

 

diversity

 

dividend

 

division

The division of Korea into north and south many years ago still has serious consequences today.

divorce

 

dna

 

dock

 

doctor

The accident victim was treated by a hospital doctor and nurses.

He spent five years at the university doing research for a doctor of philosophy degree.

She has an appointment with the doctor this morning.

doctrine

 

document

 

documentation

 

dog

If a dog bites a man, that is not news but if a man bites a dog, the newspapers will be interested.

doll

 

dollar

 

dolphin

 

domain

 

dominance

 

donation

 

donor

 

door

Please close the door when you go out.

doorway

 

dose

 

dot

 

double

The hotel offered us a room with a double bed or two single beds.

doubt

 

down

My car has broken down so I will have to go by bus.

You will need a lot of force to break down that security door.

dozen

 

Dr

 

draft

 

dragon

 

drama

 

draw

You should draw the picture on very thick paper or card.

We asked the architect to draw a plan of the proposed new house.

drawer

 

drawing

 

dream

 

dress

 

dressing

 

drill

 

drink

 

drinking

 

drive

You can use my car to drive to town.

driver

 

driving

His drunken driving cost him his life.

drop

 

drug

There is a new anti-cancer drug that we hope will save many lives.

drum

 

duck

 

duke

 

duration

 

dust

 

duty

We had to pay import duty when we brought luxury itenms into the country.

It is your duty to be loyal to your country and be a good citizen.

dwelling

 

eagle

 

ear

 

earl

 

earnings

 

earth

Google Earth lets you zoom in on photographs of any part of the world.

The gardener spent hours digging the earth to prepare the soil for planting seeds.

ease

 

east

 

easter

 

eating

 

echo

 

economics

 

economist

 

economy

They travelled in economy class

ed

 

edge

 

edition

 

editor

 

education

 

effect

What effect will this have on my salary?

effectiveness

 

efficiency

 

effort

 

egg

 

ego

 

elbow

 

elder

 

election

 

electorate

 

electricity

 

electron

 

electronics

 

element

Football is a game of skill but there is still an element of chance that produces surprise results.

elephant

The elephant is a large and strong animal but usually peaceful unless threatened.

elite

 

embarrassment

 

embassy

 

emergence

 

emergency

 

emission

 

emotion

 

emperor

 

emphasis

 

empire

 

employee

 

employer

 

employment

 

encounter

 

encouragement

 

end

At the end of the day.

The far end of the road.

At the end of the meeting, there was a collection to raise money for the project.

ending

 

enemy

The foreign army launched an assault on the enemy headquarters.

energy

This assembly is an electronic device that regulates energy consumption.

enforcement

 

engagement

 

engine

 

engineer

 

engineering

 

english

Some English people find strong Scottish accents difficult to understand.

englishman

 

enjoyment

 

enquiry

 

enterprise

 

entertainment

 

enthusiasm

 

enthusiast

 

entity

 

entrance

 

entry

 

envelope

 

environment

 

enzyme

 

episode

 

equality

 

equation

The mathematics teacher wrote the equation on the board.

equilibrium

 

equipment

The operation of this laboratory equipment is quite difficult.

equity

 

equivalent

 

era

 

erosion

 

error

 

escape

 

essay

 

essence

 

establishment

 

estate

 

estimate

 

european

Can you name the 27 countries of the European Union?

evaluation

 

evening

In the morning I go to school, in the afternoon I play sport and in the evening I read books.

event

 

evidence

 

evil

 

evolution

 

exam

 

examination

When will the examination results be announced?

Conscientious study (process of learning) is the key to examination success.

example

He tries to be a role model and set a good example to all the young people.

exception

 

excess

 

exchange

 

excitement

 

exclusion

 

excuse

 

execution

 

executive

 

exemption

 

exercise

 

exhibition

 

exile

 

existence

 

exit

 

expansion

We need to budget for further expansion and increased advetising expenditure.

expectation

 

expedition

 

expenditure

 

expense

 

experience

He has three years job experience in this industry.

experiment

This experiment demonstrates the force fields around a magnet.

expert

 

expertise

 

explanation

 

exploitation

 

exploration

 

explosion

 

export

The firm needed to raise more capital to finance new investment in export markets.

exposure

 

express

 

expression

What does the expression 'mind over matter' mean?

extension

 

extent

What is the extent of your involvement?

extract

 

extreme

 

eye

He has an eye for fine art.

Keep an eye on the children.

My left eye is hurting.

eyebrow

 

fabric

 

face

The face of modern Britain.

He washed his face and brushed his hair.

facility

 

fact

Is this fact or fiction?

The fact is, I overslept.

faction

 

factor

 

factory

This man works hard in the factory all day.

One aspect of his proposal worried me; the new factory was too close to the residential area.

The car factory has installed a new assembly line.

faculty

 

failure

 

faith

 

fall

 

fame

 

family

This family of plants is nearing extinction.

My family consists of my mother, my father and me.

The family is on benefit; they depend on welfare benefits because there are so few jobs available.

fan

 

fantasy

 

fare

 

farm

 

farmer

The farmer planted rice in his field and hopes to harvest it in a few months

farming

 

fashion

She won a million-dollar prize in the fashion competition.

fat

 

fate

 

father

My family consists of my mother, my father and me.

My mother and father have two children: a daughter and a son.

He became lord of the manor when his father died.

fault

 

favour

 

favourite

 

fax

 

fear

 

feather

 

feature

 

federation

 

fee

 

feedback

 

feeling

 

fellow

 

female

 

feminist

 

fence

 

ferry

 

fertility

 

festival

The festival has so many activities you won

fever

 

fibre

 

fiction

 

field

The farmer planted rice in his field and hopes to harvest it in a few months

Many students find physics to be a difficult field of study.

The football field was so muddy the team could not play in their usual style.

fig

 

fight

 

fighter

 

fighting

They gave their blood fighting fot the independence of their country.

figure

Look at the map in figure 8.

file

 

film

The film is not a patch on the book (colloquial; not as good as).

The film star appeared in person.

That film star can act brilliantly.

filter

 

final

 

finance

The firm needed to raise more capital to finance new investment in export markets.

His firm had great difficulty in obtaining finance to buy the expensive new machine.

finding

 

fine

He has an eye for fine art.

The art gallery has a fine collection of paintings and statues from all over the world.

finger

 

finish

 

fire

Although the fire had finished burning, the ash was still very hot.

firm

The firm will enter a new market next year.

The firm needed to raise more capital to finance new investment in export markets.

His firm had great difficulty in obtaining finance to buy the expensive new machine.

fish

She bought fish at the village market.

The school of fish swam away.

The bird swooped from high in the sky and plucked a fish from the lake.

fisherman

 

fishing

 

fist

 

fit

 

fitness

 

fitting

 

flag

 

flame

 

flash

 

flat

 

flavour

 

fleet

 

flesh

 

flexibility

 

flight

 

flock

 

flood

 

floor

 

flour

 

flow

 

flower

The garden has beautiful flower beds with many different colours and stone rockeries.

fluid

 

fly

When you fly there is a chance that the airline will lose your bags at the airport.

focus

 

fog

 

folk

 

follower

 

folly

 

food

The food shortages led to civil unrest.

fool

 

foot

In Imperial measurements, the foot is a unit of length; a metric metre is about three feet.

football

The football club signed an agreement with the city council.

What is the main colour on your football team's shirts.

Manchester United football club has bought a new player - he cost over a million Euro.

The football field was so muddy the team could not play in their usual style.

The football ground was very crowded with supporters of both teams.

force

This experiment demonstrates the force fields around a magnet.

You will need a lot of force to break down that security door.

The police force hopes to recruit women trainees.

The force of Earth

forecast

 

forehead

 

foreigner

 

forest

The forest is mainly oak trees but there are some birch, ash and sycamore too.

fork

 

form

The footballer was in good form and scored two goals.

Fill in the form using a ballpoint pen.

format

 

formation

 

formula

 

formulation

 

fortnight

 

fortune

 

forum

 

fossil

 

foundation

 

founder

 

fox

 

fraction

 

fragment

 

frame

 

framework

 

fraud

 

freedom

The price of freedom is obedience to the law.

french

 

frequency

 

fridge

 

friend

A friend in need is a friend indeed.

My friend John lives nearby.

friendship

 

fringe

 

front

 

frontier

 

fruit

What kind of fruit is this?

frustration

 

ft

 

fuel

 

fun

 

function

 

fund

 

funding

 

funeral

 

fur

 

furniture

His design for a new style of furniture won first prize.

fury

 

fusion

 

future

 

gain

He tried to gain an unfair advantage by bribing the government official.

gall

 

gallery

The art gallery has a fine collection of paintings and statues from all over the world.

game

Football is a game of skill but there is still an element of chance that produces surprise results.

gang

 

gap

 

garage

 

garden

The garden has beautiful flower beds with many different colours and stone rockeries.

We bought a new flowering plant at the garden centre.

gardener

The gardener spent hours digging the earth to prepare the soil for planting seeds.

garment

 

gas

 

gate

 

gathering

 

gaze

 

gear

 

gen

 

gender

 

gene

 

general

 

generation

 

genius

 

gentleman

 

geography

 

german

 

gesture

 

ghost

 

giant

 

gift

 

girl

This girl is going to be a star. Her singing voice is amazing!

girlfriend

 

glance

 

glass

 

glimpse

 

glory

 

glove

 

go

My car has broken down so I will have to go by bus.

Please close the door when you go out.

I go to sleep at night.

Wait a moment! This is not the right moment to go away. At moments like this, we need to be careful.

In the morning I go to school, in the afternoon I play sport and in the evening I read books.

goal

 

goat

 

god

 

gold

What is the value of this gold chain?

golf

 

good

The footballer was in good form and scored two goals.

The film is not a patch on the book (colloquial; not as good as).

She has a good reputation as a business leader.

It is your duty to be loyal to your country and be a good citizen.

He tries to be a role model and set a good example to all the young people.

goodness

 

goods

 

gospel

 

government

The government has no control over the weather.

The government increase security controls due to the bomb scare.

The government is in charge of the army, education, health and trade.

He tried to gain an unfair advantage by bribing the government official.

governor

 

gown

 

gp

 

grace

 

grade

 

graduate

 

grain

 

grammar

 

grandfather

 

grandmother

 

grant

 

graph

 

graphics

 

grass

 

grave

 

gravel

 

gravity

 

greek

 

green

 

greenhouse

 

grid

 

grief

 

grin

 

grip

 

ground

The football ground was very crowded with supporters of both teams.

I felt a movement in the ground and feared that it was an earthquake.

group

A group of students were chatting.

On the basis of 5 litres per person, he calculated the group would need 50 litres of water per day.

grouping

 

growth

 

guarantee

 

guard

 

guardian

 

guerrilla

 

guest

 

guidance

 

guide

 

guideline

 

guild

 

guilt

 

guitar

 

gun

 

guy

 

habit

 

habitat

 

hair

 

half

 

hall

 

halt

 

hammer

 

hand

He lost his right hand in an industrial accident.

handful

 

handicap

 

handle

 

handling

 

happiness

 

harbour

 

hardware

 

harm

 

harmony

 

harvest

The farmer planted rice in his field and hopes to harvest it in a few months

hat

I put a hat on my head.

hatred

 

hazard

 

head

They were at the head of the race.

She is the head of marketing.

headache

 

heading

 

headline

 

headmaster

 

headquarters

 

health

The Health Authority gives money to the hospitals.

The government is in charge of the army, education, health and trade.

heap

 

hearing

 

heart

 

heat

 

heating

 

heaven

 

hedge

 

heel

 

height

 

heir

 

helicopter

 

hell

 

help

This learning activity should help you to understand how to calculate the area of a circle.

Jack learned first aid so that he could help injured people.

hemisphere

 

herb

 

herd

 

heritage

 

hero

 

hierarchy

 

highway

 

Hill

 

hint

 

hip

 

hire

 

historian

 

history

The course of history is complex and erratic.

hit

 

hold

 

holder

 

holding

 

hole

 

holiday

I am going on holiday next week.

holly

 

home

He lives at home with his parents.

England was the home of the industrial revolution.

honey

 

honour

The king's reputation and honour is unchallenged.

hook

 

hope

My job is well-paid and I I hope for another salary increase soon.

You hope your team will win but you can

There is a new anti-cancer drug that we hope will save many lives.

I hope that I don

I hope the report is on the agenda of the committee meeting.

horizon

 

horn

 

horror

 

horse

 

hospital

He needs hospital care to recover from the suregery.

The accident victim was treated by a hospital doctor and nurses.

host

 

hostage

 

hostility

 

hotel

That hotel has a bad reputation.

The hotel is in the town centre.

He stayed so long in the hotel that his bill amounted to over 500 dollars.

The hotel offered us a room with a double bed or two single beds.

hour

An hour has 60 minutes.

house

My house is on this street.

Part of the house fell down.

The house was in a poor state (condition).

One of the rooms in his house is used as a study.

The British House of Lords is unelected and some say undemocratic - but it works quite well most of the time.

household

 

housewife

 

housing

 

hp

 

human

Psychologists study human behaviour and make associations between stimuli and responses.

humanity

 

humour

 

hundred

One hundred metres is often written as 100m.

hunger

 

hunt

 

hunting

 

husband

 

hut

 

hydrogen

 

hypothesis

 

ice

 

idea

He has no idea about cooking.

I have an idea for a new book.

ideal

 

identification

 

identity

 

ideology

 

ignorance

 

illness

Dr Mato quickly diagnosed the illness and prescribed some medicine.

illusion

 

illustration

 

image

 

imagination

 

immigration

 

impact

 

implementation

 

implication

 

import

We had to pay import duty when we brought luxury itenms into the country.

importance

 

impression

 

imprisonment

 

improvement

 

impulse

 

inability

 

incentive

 

inch

 

incidence

 

incident

 

inclusion

 

income

 

increase

The government increase security controls due to the bomb scare.

My job is well-paid and I I hope for another salary increase soon.

independence

They gave their blood fighting fot the independence of their country.

index

 

indian

 

indication

 

indicator

 

individual

 

industry

 

inequality

 

infant

 

infection

 

inflation

 

influence

 

information

He gave false information to the police.

infrastructure

 

ingredient

 

inhabitant

 

inheritance

 

initiative

 

injection

 

injunction

 

injury

 

inn

 

innovation

 

input

 

inquiry

 

insect

 

inside

 

insider

 

insight

 

inspection

 

inspector

 

inspiration

 

installation

 

instance

 

instinct

 

institute

 

institution

 

instruction

 

instrument

 

insurance

 

intake

 

integration

 

integrity

 

intellectual

 

intelligence

 

intensity

 

intent

 

intention

 

interaction

 

interest

He paid 12% interest on his loan.

Did he show any interest in her painting?

There was a conflict of interest between his business investments and his job as minister.

He earned 8% interest on the money in his savings account.

interface

 

interference

 

interior

 

interpretation

 

interval

 

intervention

 

interview

 

introduction

 

invasion

 

invention

 

investigation

 

investigator

 

investment

The firm needed to raise more capital to finance new investment in export markets.

investor

 

invitation

 

involvement

 

iron

 

irony

 

Island

 

isle

 

isolation

 

issue

Government issue clothing for soldiers is usually very strong and hardwearing.

it

What business is it of yours?

Which way (direction) is it to the city centre?

They stayed in bed and breakfast accommodation because it was comfortable and cheap.

He put the present into a large box and wrapped it carefully before posting.

A passport is such an important document, you should always keep it safely.

He calls it an alternative lifestyle; I call it lazy!

Rumour has it that he is a

What date is it today?

The lack of data makes it difficult to decide.

He finds it very hard to take decisions. He procrastinates.

The prosecution said that he was a murderer but the defence lawyer said it was mistaken itdentity.

I wrote the letter and then put it in the post today so you should receive it by tomorrow.

The farmer planted rice in his field and hopes to harvest it in a few months

The British House of Lords is unelected and some say undemocratic - but it works quite well most of the time.

I felt a movement in the ground and feared that it was an earthquake.

The MDC (Movement for Democratic Change) said it would bring about improvements in the lives of ordinary people in Zimbabwe.

italian

 

item

The meeting discussed every item on the agenda.

jacket

 

jail

 

jam

 

japanese

 

jar

 

jaw

 

jazz

 

jeans

 

jet

 

jew

 

jewellery

 

job

Have you posted your job application?

He has three years job experience in this industry.

There was a conflict of interest between his business investments and his job as minister.

It's quite a job to climb that steep hill.

My job is well-paid and I I hope for another salary increase soon.

The car repair job took 3 days.

joint

 

joke

 

journal

 

journalist

 

journey

The arrangements for the journey were very thorough.

joy

 

judge

The judge heard cases all day.

The judge sits in court and hears criminal cases.

The judge awarded the defendant

The court is very busy - the judge has to hear several cases this week.

judgement

 

judgment

 

juice

 

junction

 

jungle

 

jurisdiction

 

jury

 

justice

 

justification

 

keeper

 

key

Conscientious study (process of learning) is the key to examination success.

keyboard

 

kick

 

kid

 

killer

 

killing

 

kilometre

 

kind

What kind of fruit is this?

She is very kind and generous to everyone.

king

The court of King Rascali was corrupt.

He played the part of King Lear in the play.

kingdom

 

kiss

 

kit

 

kitchen

 

km

 

knee

 

knife

 

knight

 

knitting

 

knot

 

knowledge

 

lab

 

label

 

laboratory

The laboratory analysis showed that the water was dangerously polluted.

The blood sample was taken to the laboratory for analysis.

The operation of this laboratory equipment is quite difficult.

labour

The Labour Party candidate was successful in the election.

The labour union leaders and the company management reached a pay deal and averted a strike.

lace

 

lack

The lack of data makes it difficult to decide.

lad

 

ladder

 

lady

 

Lake

 

lamb

 

lamp

 

land

I bought some land so that I can build a new house.

landing

 

landlord

 

landowner

 

landscape

 

lane

 

language

Human communication is affected by body language and tone of voice as well as the actual words spoken.

lap

 

laser

 

laugh

 

laughter

 

launch

 

law

The new law was passed in parliament and enforced by the courts.

The law of nature says that all living things must eventually die.

lawn

 

lawyer

The lawyer submitted a detailed argument to the court claiming that the defendant had an alibi.

The prosecution said that he was a murderer but the defence lawyer said it was mistaken itdentity.

layer

 

layout

 

lb

 

lead

 

leader

 

leadership

 

leaf

 

leaflet

 

league

 

learner

 

learning

My school class is learning English. .

This learning activity should help you to understand how to calculate the area of a circle.

lease

 

leather

 

leave

He was coughing so badly he had to leave the theatre during act three.

lecture

 

lecturer

The accountancy lecturer explained profit and loss.

left

It was no accident that they left the party at the same time.

My left eye is hurting.

The maximum capacity of this left is 10 persons.

He could not swim because he had injured his left foot.

leg

He fell off the scaffolding and broke his leg when landed on the hard ground.

legacy

 

legend

 

legislation

 

leisure

 

lemon

 

length

 

lesson

 

letter

The applicant received his letter of acceptance from the university.

I wrote the letter and then put it in the post today so you should receive it by tomorrow.

level

The builder used a spirit-level to check whether the wall was level and true.

liability

 

liaison

 

liberal

 

liberation

 

liberty

 

librarian

 

library

 

licence

 

lid

 

lie

 

lieutenant

 

life

My aim in life is to work hard and to play hard.

lifespan

 

lifestyle

 

lifetime

 

lift

 

light

 

lighting

 

likelihood

 

limb

 

limit

 

limitation

 

line

The line of shoppers grew longer and longer.

link

 

lion

 

lip

 

liquid

Water has three states: solid, liquid and gas.

list

 

listener

 

listing

 

literature

 

liver

 

living

The law of nature says that all living things must eventually die.

All animals and plants consist of living cells.

load

 

loan

 

lobby

 

local

The local council looks after street cleaning.

They applied to the local council for planning approval to build a new office block.

locality

 

location

 

loch

 

lock

 

locomotive

 

lodge

 

log

 

logic

 

look

It is our policy to look after all our customers.

loop

 

lord

He became lord of the manor when his father died.

lordship

 

lorry

 

loss

 

lot

There is a lot of crime in this area.

A lot of people were at the market.

After the terrorist attack, there was a lot of police activity at the airport.

She works in administration and has to do a lot of paperwork.

You will need a lot of force to break down that security door.

lounge

 

love

They kept their love affair secret so that the newspapers would not publish embarassing stories.

lover

 

loyalty

 

luck

 

lump

 

lunch

 

lung

 

luxury

Our budget is too small to allow luxury expenditure.

We had to pay import duty when we brought luxury itenms into the country.

m

 

machine

 

machinery

Heavy plant and machinery can be very dangerous in the wrong hands.

madame

 

magazine

 

magic

 

magistrate

 

magnitude

 

maid

 

mail

 

mainframe

 

mainland

 

maintenance

 

majesty

 

major

The New Deal was a major project aimed at creating jobs and reducing poverty in America.

The unnecessary movement of vehicles every day is a major cause of pollution.

majority

 

make-up

 

maker

 

making

Students need careful advice about making wise career choices.

male

 

mammal

 

man

This man works hard in the factory all day.

The police arrested the man and accused him of murder.

The old man was born a very long time ago.

If a dog bites a man, that is not news but if a man bites a dog, the newspapers will be interested.

management

The labour union leaders and the company management reached a pay deal and averted a strike.

manager

She is manager of the advice centre.

manner

 

manor

He became lord of the manor when his father died.

manual

 

manufacture

 

manufacturer

 

manufacturing

 

manuscript

 

map

Look at the map in figure 8.

marble

 

march

 

margin

 

mark

 

marker

 

market

The firm will enter a new market next year.

marketing

 

marriage

 

mask

 

mass

 

master

 

match

 

mate

 

material

She bought some material to make a new dress.

Building material is very expensive but usually lasts a long time.

mathematics

The mathematics teacher wrote the equation on the board.

matrix

 

matter

 

maturity

 

maximum

The maximum capacity of this left is 10 persons.

mayor

 

meal

 

meaning

The business students argued about the difference in meaning between

means

 

meantime

 

measure

 

measurement

The measurement has an accuracy of 0.1%.

meat

 

mechanic

 

mechanism

The mechanism has a complex action.

medal

 

medicine

A taste of his own medicine (colloquial).

medium

 

meeting

The meeting discussed every item on the agenda.

The chairman called the meeting to order so that they could begin formal discussions.

member

Are you a member of this club?

She is a respected member of the community.

membership

 

membrane

 

memorandum

 

memorial

 

memory

 

mention

 

menu

 

merchant

 

mercy

 

merger

 

merit

 

mess

 

message

 

metal

 

metaphor

 

method

 

methodology

 

metre

In Imperial measurements, the foot is a unit of length; a metric metre is about three feet.

middle

 

midnight

He received the phone call after midnight and his sleep was disturbed.

migration

 

mile

 

milk

 

mill

 

million

Manchester United football club has bought a new player - he cost over a million Euro.

min

 

mind

She has a brilliant mind - extremely intelligent and well-educated.

Do you mind if I sit here? No, I don

mine

 

miner

 

mineral

 

minimum

 

mining

 

minister

The minister was accountable to parliament.

He was a minister in the Blair government.

She trained as minister of religion.

Mr Trasker is the Minister of Defence in the Social Democratic government.

ministry

 

minority

 

minute

The forensic scientist found minute particles on his clothing. They were so tiny you could not see them with the naked eye.

miracle

 

mirror

 

misery

 

miss

 

missile

 

mission

 

mist

 

mistake

 

mistress

 

mix

 

mixture

 

ml

 

mm

 

mobility

 

mode

 

model

The model aircraft is operated by radio control.

He tries to be a role model and set a good example to all the young people.

modification

 

module

 

molecule

 

moment

Wait a moment! This is not the right moment to go away. At moments like this, we need to be careful.

monarch

 

monarchy

 

money

The Health Authority gives money to the hospitals.

Do you have any money to hand?

I have no money so I cannot buy a new car.

Money laundering is used to transfer money from drugs, smuggling and other crimes into legitimate business accounts.

He earned 8% interest on the money in his savings account.

OXFAM and other charities launched an appeal to raise money for poor people.

At the end of the meeting, there was a collection to raise money for the project.

monitor

 

monitoring

 

monk

 

monkey

 

monopoly

 

monster

 

month

February is the only calendar month with 28 days.

monument

 

mood

 

moon

 

moor

 

morale

 

morality

 

morning

In the morning I go to school, in the afternoon I play sport and in the evening I read books.

mortality

 

mortgage

 

mosaic

 

mother

The mother fed her children.

The mother ship was escorted into harbour.

Her choice of clothes surprised her mother. Her mother wanted her to choose different clothes.

My mother and father have two children: a daughter and a son.

motif

 

motion

 

motivation

 

motive

 

motor

 

motorway

 

mould

 

mount

His attempt to climb Mount Everest failed because he ran out of oxygen,

Mountain

 

mouse

 

mouth

 

move

 

movement

I felt a movement in the ground and feared that it was an earthquake.

The unnecessary movement of vehicles every day is a major cause of pollution.

The Expressionist movement was an important stage in the development of modern art.

movie

 

mp

 

mps

 

Mr

 

Mrs

 

Ms

 

mucosa

 

mud

 

mug

 

mum

 

mummy

 

murder

 

murderer

The prosecution said that he was a murderer but the defence lawyer said it was mistaken itdentity.

muscle

 

museum

 

music

 

musician

 

mystery

 

myth

 

nail

 

name

My name is Peter.

What's the name of your hotel?

Can you name the 27 countries of the European Union?

I wrote his name and address in my notebook.

narrative

 

nation

War is sometimes due to foreign aggression and sometimes aimed at liberating a nation from oppression.

nationalism

 

nationalist

 

nationality

 

nature

The law of nature says that all living things must eventually die.

navy

 

necessity

 

neck

 

need

A friend in need is a friend indeed.

I need a new part for my car.

The old woman was in need of care due to her illness.

On the basis of 5 litres per person, he calculated the group would need 50 litres of water per day.

We need to budget for further expansion and increased advetising expenditure.

Students need careful advice about making wise career choices.

You will need a lot of force to break down that security door.

Wait a moment! This is not the right moment to go away. At moments like this, we need to be careful.

I need to insure my car against fire, theft and collision damage risks.

needle

 

negligence

The result of his negligence was severe injury.

negotiation

 

neighbour

 

neighbourhood

 

nerve

 

nest

 

net

 

network

 

newcomer

 

news

If a dog bites a man, that is not news but if a man bites a dog, the newspapers will be interested.

newspaper

 

night

I have to work the night shift on alternate weeks.

nightmare

 

no

It was no accident that they left the party at the same time.

The government has no control over the weather.

He has no idea about cooking.

I have no money so I cannot buy a new car.

What use are tea leaves if you have no hot water?

I asked at the theatre box office but they said that no seats were available.

He wanted a career in politics but he had no charisma to win votes.

I had no alternative; I had to walk 20km to get home.

node

 

noise

 

nonsense

 

norm

 

north

The division of Korea into north and south many years ago still has serious consequences today.

north-east

 

north-west

 

nose

 

note

 

notebook

 

notice

 

notion

 

novel

 

nuisance

 

number

This number is greater than ten.

nurse

 

nursery

 

nursing

 

nut

 

oak

The forest is mainly oak trees but there are some birch, ash and sycamore too.

object

 

objection

 

objective

 

obligation

 

observation

 

observer

 

obstacle

 

occasion

 

occupation

 

occurrence

 

ocean

 

odds

 

offence

 

offender

 

offer

 

offering

 

office

I work in an office building.

The office of President is extremely powerful.

I asked at the theatre box office but they said that no seats were available.

They applied to the local council for planning approval to build a new office block.

officer

The Data Protection Officer refused to allow disclosure of private information.

official

Some politicians abuse their official positions.

oil

 

one

You travel light; you have only one case and I have several bags.

Earth is one of the planets of the solar system.

onion

 

opening

 

opera

 

operating

 

operation

She is revcovering from an operation in hospital.

The operation of this laboratory equipment is quite difficult.

operator

 

opinion

 

opponent

 

opportunity

 

opposite

 

opposition

 

option

 

orange

 

orchestra

 

order

The chairman called the meeting to order so that they could begin formal discussions.

organ

 

organisation

 

organiser

 

organism

 

organization

The Youth Hostel Association is an organization that provides cheap overnight accommodation.

The Catholic Church is a very large organization with hundreds of millions of believers.

orientation

 

origin

 

other

Money laundering is used to transfer money from drugs, smuggling and other crimes into legitimate business accounts.

The other side of the moon.

Air is about 79% nitrogen and 20% oxygen; the rest is other gases including air pollution.

OXFAM and other charities launched an appeal to raise money for poor people.

outbreak

 

outcome

 

outfit

 

outlet

 

outline

 

outlook

 

output

 

outsider

 

oven

 

owl

 

owner

 

ownership

 

oxygen

All animals and plants depend on oxygen usually from the air around them.

ozone

 

p

 

pace

 

pack

 

package

 

packet

 

pact

 

pad

 

page

 

pain

 

paint

 

painter

 

painting

 

pair

 

palace

 

palm

 

pan

 

panel

 

panic

 

paper

I didn't have any small change so gave him paper money.

You should draw the picture on very thick paper or card.

para

 

parade

 

paragraph

 

parallel

 

parameter

 

parcel

 

pardon

 

parent

 

parish

 

park

 

parking

 

parliament

The new law was passed in parliament and enforced by the courts.

The National Assembly is the parliament and meets in the capital.

part

I need a new part for my car.

He played the part of King Lear in the play.

I take part in sports.

Google Earth lets you zoom in on photographs of any part of the world.

participant

 

participation

 

particle

 

partner

 

partnership

 

party

It was no accident that they left the party at the same time.

We had a birthday party on Friday.

The Labour Party candidate was successful in the election.

There is a public party tonight in the community hall.

pass

She has the ability to pass the exam.

passage

 

passenger

The passenger submitted a claim for compensation for the baggage lost at the airport.

passion

 

passport

A passport is such an important document, you should always keep it safely.

past

 

patch

His smoking patch has helped him cut down.

The film is not a patch on the book (colloquial; not as good as).

He put a patch on his torn trousers.

patent

 

path

 

patience

 

patient

His approach to the task is to be patient and persuasive; trying to bully people is not the best approach.

patrol

 

patron

 

pattern

 

pause

 

pavement

 

pay

We pay our taxes year after year.

The teacher told the students to pay attention to the explanations.

We had to pay import duty when we brought luxury itenms into the country.

The labour union leaders and the company management reached a pay deal and averted a strike.

payment

 

pc

I installed Media Player on my PC so tha I could listen to CDs.

peace

 

peak

 

peasant

 

peer

 

pen

 

penalty

 

pence

 

pencil

 

penny

 

pension

 

pensioner

 

people

Some English people find strong Scottish accents difficult to understand.

With the arrival of foreign soldiers, the people were anxious.

Other people were present.

Some people eat pork and some don't.

A lot of people were at the market.

What age are you? Only people aged 18 and over are allowed in this club.

His approach to the task is to be patient and persuasive; trying to bully people is not the best approach.

Most people have two arms and two legs. He has a tatoo on his right arm.

This baby submarine can carry two people to depths of 500 metres.

The MDC (Movement for Democratic Change) said it would bring about improvements in the lives of ordinary people in Zimbabwe.

pepper

 

per cent (%)

Inflation increased to 5 per cent (%) last year.

percent

 

percentage

What percentage of students work hard for their examinations?

perception

 

performance

 

performer

 

period

He was absent for a period of three weeks.

The period from June to August is a very busy time.

Her period was overdue.

The nineteenth century was a very turbulent period in British history.

permission

 

person

He is a person of integrity.

She was acting like a very upset person but I

personality

 

personnel

 

perspective

 

pet

 

petition

 

petrol

 

ph

 

phase

 

phenomenon

 

philosopher

 

philosophy

He spent five years at the university doing research for a doctor of philosophy degree.

phone

He received the phone call after midnight and his sleep was disturbed.

photo

 

photograph

 

photographer

 

photography

 

phrase

test phrase amended

The phrase

physics

Many students find physics to be a difficult field of study.

piano

 

picture

You should draw the picture on very thick paper or card.

pie

 

piece

 

pier

 

pig

 

pile

 

pill

 

pillar

 

pillow

 

pilot

 

pin

 

pine

 

pint

 

pipe

 

pit

 

pitch

 

pity

 

place

This is the place to be.

placement

 

plain

 

plaintiff

He asked the court to award the plaintiff $50000 for the serious injuries he has suffered.

plan

We asked the architect to draw a plan of the proposed new house.

When do you plan to get married?

plane

 

planet

 

planner

 

planning

They applied to the local council for planning approval to build a new office block.

plant

We bought a new flowering plant at the garden centre.

Heavy plant and machinery can be very dangerous in the wrong hands.

plastic

 

plate

 

platform

 

play

My aim in life is to work hard and to play hard.

The football field was so muddy the team could not play in their usual style.

In the morning I go to school, in the afternoon I play sport and in the evening I read books.

player

I installed Media Player on my PC so tha I could listen to CDs.

Manchester United football club has bought a new player - he cost over a million Euro.

plc

 

plea

 

pleasure

 

plot

 

pocket

 

poem

 

poet

 

poetry

 

point

What is the point of doing that?

What is your point of view?

poison

 

pole

 

police

The police took action to reduce crime.

The protesters could not cross the police line.

The police arrested the man and accused him of murder.

After the terrorist attack, there was a lot of police activity at the airport.

The police became suspicious of his association with known terrorists and they brought him in for questioning.

The police force hopes to recruit women trainees.

After the fight, the police charged the suspect with assault.

policeman

 

policy

It is our policy to look after all our customers.

The committee members were in agreement about the new policy proposals.

politician

 

politics

He wanted a career in politics but he had no charisma to win votes.

poll

 

pollution

We must reduce pollution to protect the environment.

polymer

 

polytechnic

 

pond

 

pony

 

pool

 

pop

 

pope

 

popularity

 

population

Almost ten per cent of the adult population are HIV-Aids infected.

port

 

portfolio

 

portion

 

portrait

 

position

 

possession

 

possibility

 

post

I wrote the letter and then put it in the post today so you should receive it by tomorrow.

The company has advertised a new post - Chief Accounting Officer.

poster

 

pot

 

potato

 

potential

 

pound

 

poverty

The war on poverty is urgent.

The New Deal was a major project aimed at creating jobs and reducing poverty in America.

powder

 

power

Electric power is used for lighting, cooking and heating.

Political power corrupts many leaders.

pp

 

practice

 

practitioner

 

praise

 

prayer

 

precedent

 

precision

 

predator

 

predecessor

 

prediction

 

preference

 

pregnancy

 

prejudice

 

premise

 

premium

 

preparation

 

prescription

 

presence

 

present

He put the present into a large box and wrapped it carefully before posting.

presentation

 

preservation

 

presidency

 

president

The office of President is extremely powerful.

The soldiers stood to attention and saluted when the president drove past.

press

The press are very biased - I don

pressure

No amount of pressure will cause me to agree to your proposal.

prevention

 

prey

 

price

The price of freedom is obedience to the law.

The price of bread has increased greatly.

We will not refund the ticket price under any circumstances.

pride

 

priest

 

primary

 

prince

 

princess

 

principal

 

principle

 

print

 

printer

 

printing

 

priority

 

prison

 

prisoner

The prisoner was kept in his cell for 23 hours a day.

privacy

 

privatisation

 

privilege

 

prize

She won a million-dollar prize in the fashion competition.

probability

 

probe

 

problem

I have a problem with my car.

procedure

 

proceed

 

proceeding

 

process

 

processing

 

processor

 

producer

 

product

 

production

Component shortages delayed production of the new cars.

productivity

 

profession

 

professional

 

professor

The professor published his study of AIDS.

The visiting professor gave an address to the conference.

profile

 

profit

His shop makes about 7% profit on turnover.

The accountancy lecturer explained profit and loss.

program

 

programme

 

programming

 

progress

 

project

The New Deal was a major project aimed at creating jobs and reducing poverty in America.

projection

 

promise

Do you promise to keep your word.

promoter

 

promotion

 

proof

 

propaganda

 

property

 

proportion

 

proposal

The proposal met a sudden death.

One aspect of his proposal worried me; the new factory was too close to the residential area.

proposition

 

prosecution

The prosecution said that he was a murderer but the defence lawyer said it was mistaken itdentity.

prospect

 

prosperity

 

protection

The Data Protection Officer refused to allow disclosure of private information.

protein

 

protest

 

protocol

 

provider

 

province

 

provision

 

psychologist

 

psychology

 

pub

 

public

There is a public party tonight in the community hall.

publication

 

publicity

 

publisher

 

publishing

 

pudding

 

pulse

 

pump

 

punch

 

punishment

 

pupil

 

purchase

 

purchaser

 

purpose

 

pursuit

 

pylorus

 

qualification

 

quality

 

quantity

 

quarry

 

quarter

 

queen

 

query

 

question

It's a question of common sense.

I asked a question and he gave me an answer.

questionnaire

 

queue

 

quid

 

quota

 

quotation

 

rabbit

 

race

The race course was very crowded with spectators.

racism

 

radiation

 

radio

The model aircraft is operated by radio control.

rage

 

raid

 

rail

 

railway

The train crash was caused by faulty railway points.

rain

 

rainbow

 

rally

 

ram

 

range

 

ranger

 

rank

 

rape

 

rat

 

rate

What rate do you charge?

rating

 

ratio

 

reach

 

reaction

 

reactor

 

reader

 

reading

 

reality

 

realm

 

rear

 

reason

He asked for the reason I was late.

Logic and reason can solve many problems but not all.

reasoning

 

rebel

 

rebellion

 

receipt

 

receiver

 

reception

 

recession

 

recipe

 

recipient

 

recognition

 

recommendation

 

reconstruction

 

record

 

recorder

 

recording

 

recovery

 

recruitment

 

red

Don't cross that red line!

You cannot enter this zone. The red zone is restricted. The twilight zone.

reduction

 

redundancy

 

ref

 

referee

 

reference

 

referendum

 

referral

 

reflection

 

reform

 

refuge

 

refugee

 

refusal

 

regard

 

regime

 

regiment

 

region

 

register

 

registration

 

regulation

 

rehearsal

 

reign

 

rejection

 

relation

 

relationship

 

relative

 

relaxation

 

release

 

relevance

 

relief

 

religion

 

reluctance

 

remainder

 

remains

 

remark

 

remedy

 

reminder

 

removal

 

renaissance

 

renewal

 

rent

 

repair

The car repair job took 3 days.

repayment

 

repetition

 

replacement

 

reply

 

report

I was shocked by the report on global warming.

Jane's school report was excellent.

I hope the report is on the agenda of the committee meeting.

reporter

 

reporting

 

representation

 

representative

 

reproduction

 

republic

 

republican

 

reputation

She has a good reputation as a business leader.

The king's reputation and honour is unchallenged.

request

 

requirement

 

rescue

 

research

He spent five years at the university doing research for a doctor of philosophy degree.

researcher

 

resentment

 

reservation

 

reserve

 

reservoir

 

residence

 

resident

 

residue

 

resignation

 

resistance

 

resolution

 

resort

 

resource

 

respect

 

respondent

 

response

 

responsibility

 

rest

Air is about 79% nitrogen and 20% oxygen; the rest is other gases including air pollution.

restaurant

 

restoration

 

restraint

 

restriction

 

result

The result of his negligence was severe injury.

What was the result of the test?

retailer

 

retirement

 

retreat

 

return

 

rev

 

revelation

 

revenge

 

revenue

 

review

 

revision

 

revival

 

revolution

 

reward

 

rhythm

 

rib

 

ribbon

 

rice

The farmer planted rice in his field and hopes to harvest it in a few months

ride

 

rider

 

ridge

 

rifle

 

right

He lost his right hand in an industrial accident.

She is right to complain about the poor working conditions.

We have the right to vote.

Most people have two arms and two legs. He has a tatoo on his right arm.

The right to bear arms is enshrined in the US constitution. Firearms are dangerous.

Wait a moment! This is not the right moment to go away. At moments like this, we need to be careful.

ring

 

riot

 

rise

 

risk

 

ritual

 

rival

 

River

After several days of heavy rain, the river flooded its banks.

road

Hard work is the road to success.

The road was wide enough for the car to overtake.

rock

 

rod

 

role

He tries to be a role model and set a good example to all the young people.

roll

 

roman

 

romance

 

roof

 

room

It looks so crowded; is there any room (space) to sit down?

This room is used for storing boxes.

The hotel offered us a room with a double bed or two single beds.

root

 

rope

 

rose

 

round

 

route

 

routine

 

row

 

rubbish

 

rug

 

rugby

 

ruin

 

rule

 

ruler

 

ruling

 

rumour

 

run

 

runner

 

running

 

rush

 

russian

 

sack

 

sacrifice

 

safety

 

sail

 

sailor

 

saint

 

sake

 

salad

 

salary

My job is well-paid and I I hope for another salary increase soon.

sale

 

sales

The advertizing campaign was very successful and sales increased by 15%.

salmon

 

salt

 

salvation

 

sample

The blood sample was taken to the laboratory for analysis.

sanction

 

sand

 

sandwich

 

satellite

 

satisfaction

 

sauce

 

saving

 

scale

 

scandal

 

scene

 

scent

 

schedule

 

scheme

 

scholar

 

scholarship

 

school

The alterations to the school rules were among many proposed changes.

My school class is learning English. .

Jane's school report was excellent.

The school of fish swam away.

He liked the school teacher because she was knowledgeable and entertaining.

The school year has three terms or trimesters.

I like my new school - it's a friendly but hard-working environment.

She wrote an interesting article for the school magazine.

science

The science teacher explained the danger of acid being spilled in the laboratory.

scientist

The forensic scientist found minute particles on his clothing. They were so tiny you could not see them with the naked eye.

scope

 

score

 

scot

 

scrap

 

screen

 

script

 

scrutiny

 

sculpture

 

Sea

His village is only ten metres above sea level.

seal

 

search

The divers explored the seabed in search of the wrecked ship.

season

 

seat

 

second

 

secret

They kept their love affair secret so that the newspapers would not publish embarassing stories.

The FBI use secret agents to smash drugs cartels.

Secretary

 

section

 

sector

 

security

The government increase security controls due to the bomb scare.

The United Nations Security Council condemned the act of war and called for a ceasefire.

President Obama will address the United Nations Security Council.

You will need a lot of force to break down that security door.

sediment

 

seed

 

segment

 

selection

 

self

 

seller

 

selling

 

semi-final

 

seminar

 

senate

 

sensation

 

sense

 

sensitivity

 

sentence

 

sentiment

 

separation

 

sequence

 

sergeant

 

series

 

serum

 

servant

 

server

 

service

What time does the bus service start?

The religious service began at 10:00.

The service is very fast in this restaurant.

The board of directors ordered all employees to be more efficient and give better service to customers.

session

 

set

He tries to be a role model and set a good example to all the young people.

setting

 

settlement

 

sex

 

sexuality

 

shade

 

shadow

 

shaft

 

shame

 

shape

 

share

 

shareholder

 

shed

 

sheep

 

sheet

 

shelf

 

shell

 

shelter

 

shield

 

shift

I have to work the night shift on alternate weeks.

shilling

 

ship

The mother ship was escorted into harbour.

shirt

 

shit

 

shock

 

shoe

 

shooting

 

shop

His shop makes about 7% profit on turnover.

shopping

 

shore

 

shortage

There is a shortage of water in the desert.

shot

 

shoulder

 

show

Did he show any interest in her painting?

shower

 

sickness

 

side

The other side of the moon.

This side of summer.

This side of the road.

A side of beef.

sigh

 

sight

 

sign

They met to sign the contract of cooperation between the parties.

signal

 

signature

 

significance

 

silence

 

silk

 

silver

 

similarity

 

sin

 

singer

 

single

The hotel offered us a room with a double bed or two single beds.

sink

 

sir

 

sister

The boy and his sister played together in the garden.

site

 

situation

 

size

 

sketch

 

skill

Football is a game of skill but there is still an element of chance that produces surprise results.

skin

The pharmacist said that daily application of the skin cream was necessary.

skirt

 

skull

 

sky

The bird swooped from high in the sky and plucked a fish from the lake.

slave

 

sleep

I go to sleep at night.

He received the phone call after midnight and his sleep was disturbed.

sleeve

 

slice

 

slide

 

slip

 

slope

 

smell

 

smile

 

smoke

 

smoking

His smoking patch has helped him cut down.

snake

 

snow

 

soap

 

soccer

 

socialism

 

society

 

sociology

 

sock

 

sofa

 

software

 

soil

The gardener spent hours digging the earth to prepare the soil for planting seeds.

soldier

The soldier won a military award for bravery.

The soldier took careful aim and then fired her rifle.

solicitor

 

solidarity

 

solo

 

solution

 

son

 

song

 

sort

 

soul

 

sound

 

soup

 

source

 

south

The division of Korea into north and south many years ago still has serious consequences today.

south-east

 

sovereignty

 

soviet

 

space

 

speaker

 

specialist

 

species

 

specification

 

specimen

 

spectacle

 

spectator

 

spectrum

 

speculation

 

speech

 

speed

 

spell

 

spelling

 

spending

 

sphere

 

spider

 

spine

 

spirit

 

spokesman

 

sponsor

 

sponsorship

 

sport

In the morning I go to school, in the afternoon I play sport and in the evening I read books.

spot

 

spread

 

spring

 

spur

 

squad

 

squadron

 

square

 

st

 

stability

 

stadium

 

staff

 

stage

The Expressionist movement was an important stage in the development of modern art.

staircase

 

stairs

 

stake

 

stall

 

stamp

 

stance

 

stand

 

standard

 

standing

 

star

The film star appeared in person.

That film star can act brilliantly.

start

 

starting

 

state

The house was in a poor state (condition).

statement

 

station

 

statistics

 

statue

 

status

 

statute

 

stay

 

steam

 

steel

 

stem

 

step

 

sterling

 

steward

 

stick

 

stimulus

 

stitch

 

stock

 

stomach

 

stone

The garden has beautiful flower beds with many different colours and stone rockeries.

stool

A chair usually has four legs but a stool has only three.

stop

 

storage

 

store

She uses Access database to store information.

storm

 

story

 

strain

 

strand

 

stranger

I was approached by a stranger who tried to sell me a fake watch.

strategy

 

straw

 

stream

 

street

The local council looks after street cleaning.

strength

 

stress

 

stretch

 

strike

 

striker

 

string

 

strip

 

stroke

 

structure

 

struggle

 

student

The student joined a sports club and a musical society.

studio

 

study

Conscientious study (process of learning) is the key to examination success.

The professor published his study of AIDS.

Psychologists study human behaviour and make associations between stimuli and responses.

stuff

 

style

His design for a new style of furniture won first prize.

subject

 

submission

 

subscription

 

subsidiary

 

subsidy

 

substance

 

substitute

 

suburb

 

success

 

succession

 

successor

 

sufferer

 

suffering

 

sugar

 

suggestion

 

suicide

 

suit

 

suite

 

sum

 

summary

 

summer

 

summit

 

sun

The sun is the centre of our universe.

sunlight

 

sunshine

 

superintendent

 

supermarket

 

supervision

 

supervisor

 

supper

 

supplement

 

supplier

 

supply

 

support

 

supporter

 

surface

 

surgeon

 

surgery

 

surplus

 

surprise

Football is a game of skill but there is still an element of chance that produces surprise results.

surroundings

 

survey

 

surveyor

 

survival

 

survivor

 

suspect

After the fight, the police charged the suspect with assault.

suspension

 

suspicion

 

sweat

 

swimming

 

swing

 

switch

 

sword

 

symbol

 

sympathy

 

symptom

 

syndrome

 

synthesis

 

system

The computer system failed to work properly.

t-shirt

 

table

 

tablet

 

tactic

 

tail

 

takeover

 

tale

 

talent

 

talk

 

tank

The army has several tank and infantry regiments and an airborne division.

tap

 

tape

 

target

 

tariff

 

task

His approach to the task is to be patient and persuasive; trying to bully people is not the best approach.

taste

A taste of his own medicine (colloquial).

A taste of luxury.

tax

The accountant produced the company accounts for the tax inspector.

taxation

 

taxi

 

taxpayer

 

tea

The tea has a refreshing taste.

What use are tea leaves if you have no hot water?

teacher

He liked the school teacher because she was knowledgeable and entertaining.

The two students sat at the back of the class hoping that the teacher would ignore them.

The teacher told the students to pay attention to the explanations.

The mathematics teacher wrote the equation on the board.

The science teacher explained the danger of acid being spilled in the laboratory.

teaching

 

team

You hope your team will win but you can

The football field was so muddy the team could not play in their usual style.

tear

 

technique

 

technology

 

teenager

 

tel

 

telecommunication

 

telegraph

 

telephone

 

television

 

temper

 

temperature

 

temple

 

temptation

 

tenant

 

tendency

 

tennis

 

tension

 

tent

 

term

The criminal was sentenced to a term of 10 years in jail.

What does the scientific term 'relativity' mean?

terminal

 

terrace

 

territory

 

terror

 

terrorist

After the terrorist attack, there was a lot of police activity at the airport.

test

 

testament

 

testing

 

text

 

textile

 

texture

 

thanks

 

theatre

The theatre had a full house.

He was coughing so badly he had to leave the theatre during act three.

They went to the ticket agency to buy theatre tickets.

I asked at the theatre box office but they said that no seats were available.

theft

I need to insure my car against fire, theft and collision damage risks.

theme

 

theology

 

theory

 

therapy

 

thesis

 

thief

 

thigh

 

thing

What is this thing lying on the floor?

thinking

 

thought

Her appointment was surprising - everyone thought she would not get the job.

thousand

 

thread

 

threat

 

threshold

 

throat

 

throne

 

thumb

 

ticket

They went to the ticket agency to buy theatre tickets.

We will not refund the ticket price under any circumstances.

tide

 

tie

 

tiger

 

tile

 

timber

 

time

What time does the bus service start?

What time is it?

The old man was born a very long time ago.

timetable

 

timing

 

tin

 

tip

 

tissue

 

title

 

toast

 

tobacco

 

toe

 

toilet

 

tomato

 

ton

 

tone

Human communication is affected by body language and tone of voice as well as the actual words spoken.

tongue

 

tonne

 

tool

This tool has many uses.

tooth

 

top

 

topic

 

torch

 

tory

 

total

 

touch

 

tour

 

tourism

 

tourist

 

tournament

 

towel

 

tower

 

town

Our town is too small to be a city.

The hotel is in the town centre.

toy

 

trace

 

track

 

trade

 

trader

 

trading

 

tradition

 

traffic

 

tragedy

 

trail

 

train

The train crash was caused by faulty railway points.

trainee

 

trainer

 

training

 

transaction

 

transfer

Money laundering is used to transfer money from drugs, smuggling and other crimes into legitimate business accounts.

transformation

 

transition

 

translation

 

transmission

 

transport

 

trap

 

travel

You travel light; you have only one case and I have several bags.

traveller

 

tray

 

treasure

 

treasury

 

treatment

 

treaty

 

tree

 

trend

 

trial

 

triangle

 

tribe

 

tribunal

 

tribute

 

trick

 

trip

 

triumph

 

troop

 

trophy

 

trouble

 

trousers

 

truck

 

trunk

 

trust

 

trustee

 

truth

 

try

 

tube

 

tumour

 

tune

 

tunnel

 

turn

 

turnover

 

tutor

 

tv

He is the leading actor in the TV play.

twin

 

type

 

tyre

 

ulcer

 

uncertainty

 

uncle

 

understanding

 

undertaking

 

unemployment

 

uniform

 

union

The labour union leaders and the company management reached a pay deal and averted a strike.

unionist

 

unit

In Imperial measurements, the foot is a unit of length; a metric metre is about three feet.

unity

 

universe

 

university

This is the highest academic award that the university can offer.

He spent five years at the university doing research for a doctor of philosophy degree.

Her university degree is in Business Administration.

unix

 

usage

 

use

What use are tea leaves if you have no hot water?

You can use my car to drive to town.

The FBI use secret agents to smash drugs cartels.

user

 

utility

 

utterance

 

validity

 

valley

 

valuation

 

value

What is the value of this gold chain?

valve

 

van

 

variable

 

variant

 

variation

 

variety

 

vat

 

vegetable

 

vegetation

 

vehicle

 

vein

 

velocity

 

vendor

 

venture

 

venue

 

verb

Abuse as a noun is pronounced 'a-bewSe' and the verb is pronounced 'a-bewZe'.

verdict

 

verse

 

version

 

vessel

 

Vice-President

 

victim

The accident victim was treated by a hospital doctor and nurses.

victory

 

video

 

view

The view from Cape Town

viewer

 

viewpoint

 

villa

 

village

His village is only ten metres above sea level.

She bought fish at the village market.

violence

 

virgin

 

virtue

 

virus

 

vision

 

visit

 

visitor

 

vitamin

 

vocabulary

 

voice

Human communication is affected by body language and tone of voice as well as the actual words spoken.

This girl is going to be a star. Her singing voice is amazing!

vol

 

voltage

 

volume

 

volunteer

 

vote

 

voter

 

voting

 

wage

 

waist

 

waiter

 

waiting

After the bomb blast, he was in agony waiting for the ambulance to take him to hospital.

wake

 

walk

I had no alternative; I had to walk 20km to get home.

walking

 

wall

The builder used a spirit-level to check whether the wall was level and true.

war

The war on poverty is urgent.

There is a war of words between the politicians.

The United Nations Security Council condemned the act of war and called for a ceasefire.

ward

 

wardrobe

 

warehouse

 

warmth

 

warning

 

warrant

 

warrior

 

wartime

 

washing

 

waste

 

watch

 

water

There is a shortage of water in the desert.

She drinks two litres of water every day.

The laboratory analysis showed that the water was dangerously polluted.

On the basis of 5 litres per person, he calculated the group would need 50 litres of water per day.

wave

 

way

I enjoy this way (method) of learning.

Which way (direction) is it to the city centre?

weakness

 

wealth

 

weapon

 

weather

 

wedding

 

week

 

weekend

 

weight

 

welcome

 

welfare

The family is on benefit; they depend on welfare benefits because there are so few jobs available.

well

Human communication is affected by body language and tone of voice as well as the actual words spoken.

The British House of Lords is unelected and some say undemocratic - but it works quite well most of the time.

west

 

whale

 

wheat

 

wheel

 

while

 

whisky

 

white

 

whole

 

wicket

 

widow

 

width

 

wife

 

wildlife

 

will

My car has broken down so I will have to go by bus.

What effect will this have on my salary?

The firm will enter a new market next year.

When will the examination results be announced?

Your agreement is vital. Without it, the plans will not be approved.

If you approach the airport from the south, you will see a large car park.

No amount of pressure will cause me to agree to your proposal.

You hope your team will win but you can

When you fly there is a chance that the airline will lose your bags at the airport.

We will not refund the ticket price under any circumstances.

If a dog bites a man, that is not news but if a man bites a dog, the newspapers will be interested.

There is a new anti-cancer drug that we hope will save many lives.

President Obama will address the United Nations Security Council.

My decision is final; you will not persuade me to change my opinion.

You will need a lot of force to break down that security door.

willingness

 

win

You hope your team will win but you can

He wanted a career in politics but he had no charisma to win votes.

wind

 

window

 

wine

 

wing

 

winner

 

winter

 

wire

 

wisdom

 

wish

 

wit

 

withdrawal

 

witness

The witness stated that they had seen the attack.

wolf

 

woman

She was the first woman to be become president.

The old woman was in need of care due to her illness.

wonder

 

wood

 

woodland

 

wool

 

word

The word 'book' can be used as a noun, as an adjective and as a verb.

They got word of his death.

I found the word in the dictionary.

The word data was originally the plural of datum.

Nowadays, the word data is generally used as an uncountable (mass) noun.

work

I work in an office building.

Hard work is the road to success.

The computer system failed to work properly.

I enjoy my work as a teacher.

Now that the boss is back, we had better work faster.

I have to work the night shift on alternate weeks.

My aim in life is to work hard and to play hard.

What percentage of students work hard for their examinations?

Which department do you work in?

worker

 

workforce

 

working

She is right to complain about the poor working conditions.

works

This man works hard in the factory all day.

Mr Khan works in a city office.

She works in administration and has to do a lot of paperwork.

He works as an agent and earns commission on every sale.

The British House of Lords is unelected and some say undemocratic - but it works quite well most of the time.

workshop

 

workstation

 

world

She loves the world of art and literature.

He flew around the world in 3 days.

worm

 

worry

 

worship

This church was built 500 years ago but is still used for worship today.

worth

 

wound

 

wrist

 

writer

 

writing

 

yacht

 

yard

 

yarn

 

year

The school year has three terms or trimesters.

Last year I went to Spain.

A year has 12 months.

We pay our taxes year after year.

yield

 

youngster

 

youth

The Youth Hostel Association is an organization that provides cheap overnight accommodation.

zone

You cannot enter this zone. The red zone is restricted. The twilight zone.

zzz

 


 

Learning resources, notes and exercises for international students and teachers of English





11640